NONLINEAR MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FOR THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF FUEL CELL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN REAL TIMEABSTRACT The concept of introducing hybrid off-grid systems has made electricity accessible to areas that are far or have no access to grid network. This Project evaluates the techno-economic and environmental characteristics of a hybrid renewable energy system considering three different scheduling approaches, four different solar tracking systems, two different PV modules and eight scheduling scenarios to supply sustainable electricity to a rural community in Sierra Leone. Each scenario consists of a solar tracking system, a specific type of PV module and a scheduling approach. The aim is to find the most efficient and cost-effective scenario that meets the electrical demands of the village. The ‘Two axis tracking system’ generated the highest PV power, 28.8% additional power compared to the ‘No tracking system’ confirming the superiority of using a tracking system though it comes with initial cost repercussions. Also, systems that employed the use of Canadiasolar Dymond CS6K-285M-FG PV module tend to be more efficient and cost-effective than those that employed Sharp ND-250QCS PV module even with the same solar tracking technology and scheduling approach. From the best scheduling approach (third scheduling), Scenario 7 (SC#7) gives the lowest net present cost (NPC) of $1.53M with $0.173/kWh cost of energy (COE) and CO2 emission of 8.54 kg/yr making it the optimum scenario. A daily operation of the optimum scenario on both a sunny and rainy day confirms that the system is capable of supplying the required electricity for both rainy and dry seasons. Sensitivity analyses explain the high reliance of the system cost on the erratic inflation rate, discount rate and PV dating factor. Maintaining a healthy and sustainable environment depends on the minimum load ratio of both the biogas and diesel generators.ABSTRACT The concept of introducing hybrid off-grid systems has made electricity accessible to areas that are far or have no access to grid network. This Project evaluates the techno-economic and environmental characteristics of a hybrid renewable energy system considering three different scheduling approaches, four different solar tracking systems, two different PV modules and eight scheduling scenarios to supply sustainable electricity to a rural community in Sierra Leone. Each scenario consists of a solar tracking system, a specific type of PV module and a scheduling approach. The aim is to find the most efficient and cost-effective scenario that meets the electrical demands of the village. The ‘Two axis tracking system’ generated the highest PV power, 28.8% additional power compared to the ‘No tracking system’ confirming the superiority of using a tracking system though it comes with initial cost repercussions. Also, systems that employed the use of Canadiasolar Dymond CS6K-285M-FG PV module tend to be more efficient and cost-effective than those that employed Sharp ND-250QCS PV module even with the same solar tracking technology and scheduling approach. From the best scheduling approach (third scheduling), Scenario 7 (SC#7) gives the lowest net present cost (NPC) of $1.53M with $0.173/kWh cost of energy (COE) and CO2 emission of 8.54 kg/yr making it the optimum scenario. A daily operation of the optimum scenario on both a sunny and rainy day confirms that the system is capable of supplying the required electricity for both rainy and dry seasons. Sensitivity analyses explain the high reliance of the system cost on the erratic inflation rate, discount rate and PV dating factor. Maintaining a healthy and sustainable environment depends on the minimum load ratio of both the biogas and diesel generators.

Abstract

ABSTRACT

The concept of introducing hybrid off-grid systems has made electricity accessible to areas that are far or have no access to grid network. This Project evaluates the techno-economic and environmental characteristics of a hybrid renewable energy system considering three different scheduling approaches, four different solar tracking systems, two different PV modules and eight scheduling scenarios to supply sustainable electricity to a rural community in Sierra Leone. Each scenario consists of a solar tracking system, a specific type of PV module and a scheduling approach. The aim is to find the most efficient and cost-effective scenario that meets the electrical demands of the village. The ‘Two axis tracking system’ generated the highest PV power, 28.8% additional power compared to the ‘No tracking system’ confirming the superiority of using a tracking system though it comes with initial cost repercussions. Also, systems that employed the use of Canadiasolar Dymond CS6K-285M-FG PV module tend to be more efficient and cost-effective than those that employed Sharp ND-250QCS PV module even with the same solar tracking technology and scheduling approach. From the best scheduling approach (third scheduling), Scenario 7 (SC#7) gives the lowest net present cost (NPC) of $1.53M with $0.173/kWh cost of energy (COE) and CO2 emission of 8.54 kg/yr making it the optimum scenario. A daily operation of the optimum scenario on both a sunny and rainy day confirms that the system is capable of supplying the required electricity for both rainy and dry seasons. Sensitivity analyses explain the high reliance of the system cost on the erratic inflation rate, discount rate and PV dating factor. Maintaining a healthy and sustainable environment depends on the minimum load ratio of both the biogas and diesel generators.

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