Lung diseases can result in acute breathing problems and prevent the human body from acquiring enough oxygen. These diseases, such as pneumonia (P), pleural effusion (Ef), lung cancer, pneumothorax (Pt), pulmonary fibrosis (F), infiltration (In) and emphysema (E), adversely affect airways, alveoli, blood vessels, pleura and other parts of the respiratory system. The death rates of P and lung cancer are higher than those of other typical lung diseases. In visualization examination, chest radiography, such as anterior posterior or lateral image viewing, is a straightforward approach used by clinicians/radiologists to diagnose and locate possible lung abnormalities rapidly However, a chest X-ray image of patients may show multiple abnormalities associated with coexisting conditions, such as P, E, F, Pt, atelectasis, lung cancer or surgical interventions, which further complicate diagnosis. In addition, poor quality X-ray images and manual inspection have limitations in digital image automated classification. Hence, this study intends to propose a multilayer machine vision classifier to automatically identify the possible class of lung diseases within a bounding region of interest (ROI) on a chest X-ray image. For digital image texture analysis, a two-dimensional (2D) fractional-order convolution (FOC) operation with a fractional order parameter, v = 0:3 – 0:5, is used to enhance the symptomatic feature and remove unwanted noises. Then, maximum pooling is performed to reduce the dimensions of feature patterns and accelerate complex computations. A multilayer machine vision classifier with radial Bayesian network and gray relational analysis is used to screen subjects with typical lung diseases. Anterior posterior chest X-ray images from the NIH chest X-ray database (NIH Clinical Center) are enrolled. For digital chest X-ray images, with K-fold cross validation, the proposed multilayer machine vision classifier is applied to facilitate the diagnosis of typical lung diseases on specific bounding ROIs, as promising results with mean recall (%), mean precision (%), mean accuracy (%) and mean F1 score of 98.68%, 82.42%, 83.57% and 0.8981, respectively, for assessing the performance of proposed multilayer classifier for rapidly screening lung lesions on digital chest X-ray images. This project is implemented with MATLAB software.